The name seems to have derived from the comment of the critic Louis Vauxcelles that some of Braque's paintings exhibited in Paris in showed everything reduced to 'geometric outlines, to cubes'. Picasso was also influenced by African tribal masks which are highly stylised, or non-naturalistic, but nevertheless present a vivid human image. In their Cubist paintings Braque and Picasso began to bring different views of the object together on the picture surface. The head remains a head.
They countered this by incorporating words, and then real elements, such as newspapers, to represent themselves. This was Cubist collage , soon extended into three dimensions in Cubist constructions. This was the start of one of the most important ideas in modern art , that you can use real things directly in art. Cubism was the starting point for much abstract art including Constructivism and Neo-Plasticism. It also however, opened up almost infinite new possibilities for the treatment of reality in art.
Las vanguardias literarias del siglo XX. Painters and Poets: Picasso and Faulkner. Picasso and Faulkner have striking similarities and equally striking differences. Unlike Faulkner , Picasso was precocious both artistically and sexually. Yet as one examines room after room of his erotica in Barcelona, By Pedro Guerrero Ruiz. Such poets adopted a number of techniques which could be classed as close to Analytic Cubism destruction of grammar, strange or absent punctuation, free verse, etc.
Others were close to Synthetic Cubism, especially in the case of Guillaume Apollinaire, who fused poetry and drawing in caligrammes; created collages involving postcards, letters and the like. It should be noted that Cubist poetry frequently overlaps with Surrealism , Dadaism , Futurism , or even more diverse movements such as Vicente Huidobro's Creationism. A prime example of cubism in music was given by composer Igor Stravinsky in his Piano-Rag-Music, for solo piano. It was written during Stravinsky's stay in France around , as a result of contact with American popular music ragtime culminated, at that time from the early '20s.
Elements reassembled were rhythmic and harmonic segments from ragtime and polyrhythm, bitonality and melody from his Russian influence. Art of the Fantastic Fantastic Art is an art genre. The parameters of fantastic art have been fairly rigorously defined in the scholarship on the subject ever since the time of Jules Verne and HG Wells. Fantastic Art has traditionally been largely confined to painting and illustration, but since the s has increasingly been found also in photography. Being an inheritant genre of Victorian Symbolism, the modern Fantastic Art often shares its choice of themes such as mythology , occultism and mysticism , or lore and folklore, and generally seeks to depict the inner life nature of soul and spirit.
Henri Rousseau. Timeline: Art of the Fantastic. Before this he had served in the army, and he later claimed to have seen service in Mexico, but this story seems to be a product of his imagination. He took up painting as a hobby and accepted early retirement in so he could devote himself to art. There have always been interesting American artists, and at least two 19th-century painters, Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer, influenced the course of future art in the United States.
During the s and '30s, Edward Hopper and Georgia O'Keeffe emerged as the inspirational new painters of distinctive American traditions. Hopper's work was strongly realist, his still, precise images of desolation and isolated individuals reflecting the social mood of the times. She may not have been a great painter, but her art was highly influential.
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Edward Hopper: American scene painting. The title of this Duke Ellington song sums up the "in" music of the thirties. In this same era Broadway produced some of the most famous and lasting American musicals. Songwriters and lyricists like Irving Berlin , Johnny Mercer , and Richard Rodgers composed melodies still being played and sung today.
T he Federal Music Project FMP supported the musical arts and sponsored performances of both classical and popular compositions. In the Department of the Interior hired Woody Guthrie to travel throughout the Northwest and perform his folk songs.
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During this tour he wrote twenty-six songs in twenty-six days. By Guthrie was making appearances in support of labor unions and wrote such songs as "I Ain't Got No Home" , inspired by visits to migrant labor camps. There have been many proponents of making this the national anthem, replacing the hard to sing "Star Spangled Banner". Pre-War American Literature.
There were notable works in other forms of literature. Ogden Nash wrote light verse for the New Yorker magazine. Seuss delighted children with his rhyming books for youngsters learning to read. The public speaking instructor, Dale Carnegie , in penned the book whose title How to Win Friends and Influence People was to become a part of the language.
Abstract expressionism. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris.
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Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in by the art critic Robert Coates , it had been first used in Germany in in the magazine Der Sturm , regarding German Expressionism. The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism , the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism.
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism , with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey , especially his "white writing" canvases, which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the " all-over " look of Pollock's drip paintings.
Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early twentieth century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it.
While New York and the world were yet unfamiliar with the New York avant-garde by the late s, most of the artists who have become household names today had their well established patron critics: Clement Greenberg advocated Jackson Pollock and the color field painters like Clyfford Still , Mark Rothko , Barnett Newman , Adolph Gottlieb and Hans Hofmann. Harold Rosenberg seemed to prefer the action painters like Willem de Kooning , and Franz Kline , as well as the seminal paintings of Arshile Gorky.
Thomas B. It is impossible to estimate how much they affected American art, but the fact remains that in the s and '50s, for the first time, American artists became internationally important with their new vision and new artistic vocabulary, known as Abstract Expressionism. Like many other modern movements, Abstract Expressionism does not describe any one particular style, but rather a general attitude; not all the work was abstract, nor was it all expressive. What these artists did have in common were morally loaded themes, often heavyweight and tragic, on a grand scale.
In contrast to the themes of social realism and regional life that characterized American art of previous decades, these artists valued, above all, individuality and spontaneous improvisation. They felt ill at ease with conventional subjects and styles, neither of which could adequately convey their new vision.
In fact, style as such almost ceased to exist with the Abstract Expressionists, and they drew their inspiration from all directions. The movement was hugely successful, partly due to the efforts of the critics Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg who also originated the terms Action Painting and American Style. Pollock, Jackson American painter, the commanding figure of the Abstract Expressionist movement. During the s he worked in the manner of the Regionalists, being influenced also by the Mexican muralist painters Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros and by certain aspects of Surrealism.
From to he worked for the Federal Art Project. This manner of Action painting had in common with Surrealist theories of automatism that it was supposed by artists and critics alike to result in a direct expression or revelation of the unconscious moods of the artist. In , a new group of German artists began exhibiting their work to the public. Der Blaue Reiter was to become the high point of German Expressionism, but it also opened the way towards abstraction with its stand for free experimentation and originality.
The group included Franz Marc , Wassily Kandinsky , and August Macke , and celebrated the art of children and primitives, but had no precise artistic programme. The most active proponent of this essentially romantic and rather spiritual view of art was Franz Marc, a young artist who was killed in World War I. Marc saw animals as the betrayed but uncontaminated guardians of what was left of innocence and unspoilt nature.