The most common effect noted is an initial hypertension due to peripheral postsynaptic adrenoreceptors causing vasoconstriction , which results in a baroreceptor-mediated reflex bradycardia. As the peripheral effects diminish, central alpha-2 actions predominate, leading to decreased blood pressure and cardiac output.
Anticholinergics have been advocated to reduce the bradycardic effects, but their use is controversial elevating heart rate in the presence of high systemic vascular resistance can result in increased cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption. If used, it's probably best to give the anticholinergic before or with the alpha-2 to minimize the risk of reflex tachycardia occurring at the time of peak hypertension ; severe bradycardia occurring after the alpha-2 has been administered should be treated with a reversal agent.
Other side effects can include short term A-V block most often first or second degree , sinus arrhythmia, sinoatrial block, decreased respiratory rate, peripheral venous desaturation resulting in a cyanotic appearance to the mucous membranes , vomiting, increased urine output, transient hyperglycemia due to inhibition of insulin secretion and increased myometrial tone and intrauterine pressure.
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Additionally, xylazine has been associated with the development of aerophagia, gastric dilatation, gastric reflux and cholinergic bradycardia. Traditionally, the use of alpha-2 agonists has been limited to healthy adult dogs and cats with adequate cardiovascular reserve capacity and no evidence of heart disease, liver or kidney failure, shock or severe debilitation. More recently, work from the University of Illinois 1 using butorphanol 0.
The dogs averaged 12 sedative events, the cats There were total events over the eight-year period. No fatalities occurred. Alpha-2 agonists should be avoided in pediatric patients less than 12 weeks of age cardiac output is heart rate dependent, limited ability to increase contractility and used with caution in advanced geriatric animals where cardiovascular reserve may be diminished.
A simple and useful formula for an average sized adult cat is to combine 0. Always exercise appropriate precautions, especially with fractious animals. Attention to proper patient monitoring is important with any sedative protocol. If ketamine was used, wait at least 30 - 45 minutes before reversing to reduce the risk of a rough recovery. In most instances, intramuscular injection is preferred. The following are the most common dose ranges for dogs and cats:.
Cats : Important factors to remember when using dexmedetomidine as a pre-anesthetic include:. Generally, half or less of the standard induction drug dose should be used, and inhalant levels should be carefully monitored, with close attention paid to blood pressure intraoperatively. The following things are useful for maximizing nursing and minimizing the amount of expressed milk that baby needs while you are away.
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Nurse right before you leave baby and immediately after you return from work. Make sure your care provider does not feed baby right before you are due to return. Has your baby started solids? If so, have your care provider offer all or most solids, and only or mainly breastfeed when you are with baby.
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By doing this, baby may need less milk when you are apart due to the solids and will nurse more when you are together. This can both help your supply more nursing and decrease the amount of pumped milk you need to provide. One study has shown that the moms of hospitalized babies who listened to guided relaxation or soothing music while pumping had an increased pumping output.
In this study, the interventions led to moms producing times their normal pumping output. Milk fat content also increased for these moms in the early days of the study. Let-down Reflex: Too slow? How much expressed milk will my baby need? Arctic sea ice extent both affects and is affected by global climate change.
Interactive: Global ice viewer An interactive exploration of how global warming is affecting sea ice, glaciers and continental ice sheets worldwide. Extreme Events The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing, while the number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since The U.
How much do you know about how water is cycled around our planet and the crucial role it plays in our climate? Ocean Acidification Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year. Graphic about how i ncreased greenhouse gases from human activities result in climate change and ocean acidification.
Santer et. Gabriele C. Ramaswamy et. In the s, physicist John Tyndall recognized the Earth's natural greenhouse effect and suggested that slight changes in the atmospheric composition could bring about climatic variations. In , a seminal paper by Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius first predicted that changes in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could substantially alter the surface temperature through the greenhouse effect.
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National Academy Press, Washington, D. Levitus, S. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data NCEI Accession Version 4.
National Snow and Ice Data Center. Robinson, D.
Hall, and T. Boulder, Colorado USA. Fahey, K. Hibbard, D. Dokken, B.
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Sabine et. The planet's average surface temperature has risen about 1. Not only was the warmest year on record, but eight of the 12 months that make up the year — from January through September, with the exception of June — were the warmest on record for those respective months. An indicator of current global average temperature as measured by NASA; updated annually.